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THE SURVIVAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS A study in Law and Politics

83,00

Συγγραφές / Author: Polyviou Polyviols
ISBN: 9786180802719
Εκδότης / Publisher: Nomiki Bibliothiki
Ημ. Εκδοσης / Date of Publish: May 2024
Βιβλιοδεσία / Format: Σκληρόδετη

The central thesis of the book is the amazing story of the survival in International Law and practice of the Republic of Cyprus, which achieved its independence in 1960, despite the continuous crises, problems and convulsions experienced since then.
Indeed, despite the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, and the continuing occupation of a significant part of its territory, the Republic of Cyprus was admitted as a full member of the European Union in 2004.

As Polyviou points out, since 1963, Cyprus has experienced constitutional breakdown, political turmoil, every possible type of aggravation and threat, as well as invasion and continuing military occupation, but somehow its Government and legal and political system have not only survived but have also been considerably enriched by a variety of elements from other legal and political spheres, including the European Union and International Law and practice. In his book, the author investigates some of the reasons for the survival and durability of the Republic of Cyprus and its legal and political system.
The central issues explored in the book are the amazing and unexpected survival of the Republic of Cyprus through all the problems encountered since 1963, and the extent to which such survival was due to law or politics or both. This latest book of P.G. Polyviou is essential reading for all those interested in the Cyprus problem, International Law and contemporary politics.

Περιεχόμενα

PREFACE xi

TABLE OF CASES xiii

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. THE ZURICH AND LONDON AGREEMENTS AND THE 1960 CONSTITUTION 7

Overview 7

Treaties 9

The 1960 Constitution 13

(i) The Executive 15

(ii) The Legislative Power 16

(iii) The Judiciary 16

(iv) The Public Service 18

(v) Independent Officers of the Republic 19

A Critical Appraisal 19

3. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CRISIS OF 1963 AND SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENTS 27

4. IBRAHIM – BACKGROUND, FACTS AND DECISION 39

5. IBRAHIM AND THE DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY – THE JUDGMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS 47

6. IBRAHIM – THE AFTERMATH IN CYPRUS 83

Administrative Decisions 85

Establishment of Substitute or New Organs 86

Miscellaneous Legislation Contrary to the Provisions of the 1960 Constitution 91

Offices and Positions That Could Only be Filled by President and Vice-President Together 95

Fundamental Human Rights and the Doctrine of Necessity 95

Amending the Constitution and the Doctrine of Necessity 121

Transformation of Doctrine of Necessity 128

Continuing Limitations on Doctrine of Necessity 129

The Reform of the Judiciary 134

Final Comments on Necessity in Cyprus 139

7. IBRAHIM ABROAD 147

8. REVOLUTION, NECESSITY, LEGAL DISCONTINUITY 177

9. ECHOES FROM AMERICA 199

10. FUNDAMENTAL LAW AND INNER LAW, BASIC STRUCTURE AND CONSTITUTIVE POWER 205

Fundamental Law and Inner Law 205

Constitutional Amendment and Basic Structure 212

Constitutive Power 226

11. COURTS, JUDGES AND ADJUDICATION, PARTICULARLY IN SITUATIONS OF NECESSITY 233

12. IBRAHIM AND THE DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY – AN OVERVIEW 253

13. THE TURKISH INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF CYPRUS 269

Greek Military Coup and Turkish Invasion 269

The Geneva Declaration of 30 July 1974 271

The Second Geneva Conference 283

14. LEGAL CASES 301

Introduction 301

The European Commission and the European Court of Human Rights 301

(i) Early Cases 301

(ii) Loizidou 309

(iii) Cyprus v. Turkey 319

(iv) Subsequent Cases 337

(v) Turkey’s Strategic Moves Following Cyprus v. Turkey 342

(vi) Demopoulos 344

(vii) Political Context of Demopoulos 352

(viii) Cyprus v. Turkey – “Just Satisfaction” 362

(ix) Committee of Ministers, Cases Subsequent to Demopoulos and Efforts to “Close” the Issue of Property 369

The European Court of Justice 376

(i) Anastasiou 377

(ii) Apostolides 380

European Court of Human Rights and Court of Justice of the European Union – Apostolides and Demopoulos 385

UK Courts and Tribunals 392

Namibia, as applied by English Courts and the US Supreme Court 412

15. THE IMPORTANCE OF LAW AND LEGAL SCIENCE 427

Law and the Republic of Cyprus 427

Proceedings in the Context of the European Convention on Human Rights 429

Application to Join the European Union 433

16. TERRITORY 457

Introduction 457

Invasion and Occupation 459

Buffer Zone 460

European Acquis 472

Occupied Area and the “TRNC” 480

The Sovereign British Bases in CyprUs 485

(i) UK Legal Order 485

(ii) International Law Framework 489

(iii) Facts and Realities on the Ground 494

17. The Judiciary and the Rule of Law 499

18. FEDERAL RECONSTRUCTION 507

Cyprus and Federation 507

Invasion, Occupation and Federation 509

The Joint Declaration of February 2014 and Subsequent Negotiations 523

Τhe Turkish Side Chooses Partition 538

Statehood and Federation 543

19. TRIAL AND SURVIVAL 547

20. REFLECTIONS AND CONCLUDING COMMENTS 551

Law and Politics 551

Sword and Shield 563

Paradoxes and Dilemmas 569

Conclusion 579

INDEX 583